Chimney flue liners come mainly in 3 materials - clay, concrete and stainless steel. Stainless steel flues are often used to line an existing flue which may be found to leak gases or are required when installing a new fire. The stainless steel liner can be inserted into the existing chimney.
Clay and concrete liners are usually used when building a chimney from scratch.
There is no hard and fast way of building a chimney - the following series of photographs illustrate some key steps during one construction.
Click on the photos for a larger viewAlso check out the British Flue & Chimney Manufacturers Association guidance document.
You may also be interested in building the chimney stack